de Bono’s 6 thinking hats

Six Thinking Hats® is a simple, effective parallel thinking processthat helps people be more productive, focused, and mindfully involved. And once learned the tools can be applied immediately!

You and your team members can learn how to separate thinking into six valuable functions and roles. Each thinking role is identified with a colored symbolic “thinking hat.” By mentally wearing and switching “hats,” you can easily focus or redirect thoughts, the conversation, or the meeting.

The White Hat calls for information known or needed. “The facts, just the facts.”
The Yellow Hat symbolizes brightness and optimism. Under this hat you explore the positives and probe for value and benefit
The Black Hat is judgment – the devil’s advocate or why something may not work. Spot the difficulties and dangers; where things might go wrong. Probably the most powerful and useful of the Hats but a problem if overused.
The Red Hat signifies feelings, hunches and intuition. When using this hat you can express emotions and feelings and share fears, likes, dislikes, loves, and hates.
The Green Hat focuses on creativity; the possibilities, alternatives, and new ideas. It’s an opportunity to express new concepts and new perceptions.
The Blue Hat is used to manage the thinking process. It’s the controlmechanism that ensures the Six Thinking Hats® guidelines are observed.

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metacognitive process

The metacognitive process enhances learning by guiding students’ thinking, and by helping the learner follow a wise course of action as he or she thinks through a problem, makes decisions, or attempts to understand a situation or text. In this rapidly changing world, the challenge of teaching is to help students develop skills that will not become obsolete. Metacognitive strategies are essential for the twenty-first century because they enable students to cope successfully with new situations.

Learners who are well developed metacognitively:

  • Are confident that they can learn.
  • Make accurate assessments of why they succeed in learning.
  • Think clearly about inaccuracies when failure occurs during tasks.
  • Actively seek to expand their repertoire of strategies for learning.
  • Match strategies to the learning task, making adjustments when necessary.
  • Ask for guidance from peers or the teacher.
  • Take time to think about their own thinking.
  • View themselves as continual learners and thinkers.

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Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning is one of the two basic forms of valid reasoning. While inductive reasoning argues from the particular to the general, deductive reasoning argues from the general to a specific instance. The basic idea is that if something is true of a class of things in general, this truth applies to all legitimate members of that class. The key, then, is to be able to properly identify members of the class. Miscategorizing will result in invalid conclusions.

Examples of deductive reasoning may be both subtle and time-saving. For example, Be careful of that wasp: it might sting. is based on the logic that wasps as a class have stingers; therefore each individual wasp will have a stinger. This conclusion is freeing in that we do not have to examine each and every wasp we ever encounter to ascertain what characteristics it may have. Because of the validity of deductive reasoning, we may make an assumption that is both useful and efficient.

One of the most common and useful forms of deductive reasoning is the syllogism. The syllogism is a specific form of argument that has three easy steps.

  • 1. Every X has the characteristic Y.
  • 2. This thing is X.
  • 3. Therefore, this thing has the characteristic Y.

Let’s look at what each step in the deductive reasoning process means.

1. The first step names a definitive property of X, whatever X is.

Examples :

  • Every triangle has three sides.
  • Frogs are amphibians.
  • A standard major league baseball game has 9 innings.

2. The second step proclaims that a particular item/person fits into the category that has been composed.

Examples:

  • The figure I drew is a triangle.
  • The coqui is a frog native to Puerto Rico.
  • That was a standard major league ballgame.

3. The third step applies deductive reasoning, connecting the general truth stated in step 1 to the particular case mentioned in the second step.

Examples:

  • This triangle I drew has three sides.
  • The coqui is an amphibian.
  • That ballgame had 9 innings.

Creating a syllogism is a good way to test your deductive reasoning to ensure that it is valid.

you may visit this website for the further information:

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Inductive Reasoning

Inductive reasoning is a branch of logic. In a valid inductive argument, the conclusion (consequent) is believed to be true on the basis of White Swanits antecedents. For example, when all swans are observed to be white, a student may easily reach the conclusion that all swans are indeed white. A generalization is made based on the evidence gathered. However, when a black swan is observed, the generalization must be thrown out based upon the new data (antecedents). Do you recall that the black swan is native to Australia? Well, it is! Before the great voyages of discovery, the black swan was never observed in Europe and England, and it remained unknown to westerners until Australia was discovered and explored. That swans could be black would have been a false conclusion by anyone other than the indiginous people of the land down under before the exploration of the Australian continent!

Hilda Taba believed that students make generalizations only afterBlack Swandata are organized. She believed that students can be led toward making generalizations through concept development and concept attainment strategies. In A Teacher’s Handbook to Elementary Social Studies , Hilda Taba describes generalizing as a higher order of thinking when compared to forming concepts.

Generalizations like concepts, are the end products of a process of an individual’s abstracting from a group of items of his experience those elements of characteristics the items share, and expressing his recognition of this commonality in a way that is convincing to others. The two major differences between concepts and generalizations are, first of all, that in generalizations the verbal form of the process is expressed as a sentence rather than a word or phrase as in the case of concepts, and second, that generalizations are here taken as representing a higher level of thinking than concepts in that they are a statement of relationships among two or more of these concepts. (1971, p. 72)

Taba, H., Durkin, M. C., Fraenkel, J. R., & NcNaughton, A. H. (1971). A teacher’s handbook to elementary social studies: An inductive approach (2nd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

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types of mind map

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bloom’s taxonomy

LEVEL

DEFINITION

SAMPLE
VERBS

SAMPLE
BEHAVIORS

KNOWLEDGE

Student recalls or
recognizes information,
ideas, and principles
in the approximate
form in which they
were learned.

Write
List
Label
Name
State

Define

The student will define
the 6 levels of Bloom’s
taxonomy of the
cognitive domain.

COMPREHENSION

Student translates,
comprehends, or
interprets information
based on prior
learning.

Explain
Summarize
Paraphrase
Describe
Illustrate

The student will explain
the purpose of Bloom’s
taxonomy of the
cognitive domain.

APPLICATION

Student selects, trans-
fers, and uses data
and principles to
complete a problem
or task with a mini-
mum of direction.

Use
Compute
Solve
Demonstrate
Apply
Construct

The student will
write an instructional
objective for each
level of Bloom’s
taxonomy.

ANALYSIS

Student distinguishes,
classifies, and relates
the assumptions,
hypotheses, evidence,
or structure of a
statement or question.

Analyze
Categorize
Compare
Contrast
Separate

The student will
compare and contrast
the cognitive and
affective domains.

SYNTHESIS

Student originates,
integrates, and
combines ideas into a
product, plan or
proposal that is new
to him or her.

Create
Design
Hypothesize
Invent
Develop

The student will
design a classification
scheme for writing
educational objectives
that combines the
cognitive, affective,
and psychomotor
domains.

EVALUATION

Student appraises,
assesses, or critiques
on a basis of specific
standards and criteria.

Judge
Recommend
Critique
Justify

The student will
judge the effective-
ness of writing
objectives using
Bloom’s taxonomy.

In general, research over the last 40 years has confirmed the taxonomy as a hierarchy with the exception of the last two levels. It is uncertain at this time whether synthesis and evaluation should be reversed (i.e., evaluation is less difficult to accomplish than synthesis) or whether synthesis and evaluation are at the same level of difficulty but use different cognitive processes. Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) revised Bloom’s taxonomy and placed evaluating prior to creating. In my opinion, it is more likely that synthesis/creating and evaluation/evaluating are at the same level. Both depend on analysis as a foundational process. However, synthesis or creating requires rearranging the parts in a new, original way whereas evaluation or evaluating requires a comparison to a standard with a judgment as to good, better or best. This is similar to the distinction between creative thinking and critical thinking. Both are valuable while neither is superior. In fact, when either is omitted during the problem solving process, effectiveness declines (Huitt, 1992).

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mind mapping!!

it is enjoyable and fun to learn about mind mapping in the lecture. besides, en Mahzan delivered the lesson with his funny ways. he taught about the types of mind maps such as classic mind map, spider mind map, hierarchy, flowchart, and others. besides we also learned hoe to make a good mind map. the main point is in the center of the page. it will related with the thesis statements and the supporting points. it will be connected with lines. the advantages of the mind mapping are it is using colorful and creative ways to create it. so, it is easy to remember and to recall the informations. besides that, we can put many information in a page since we just put the keywords. last but not least, mind map is very useful for students like us to make revision or to do notes. it’s truly helping us to enhance our memorization.

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